A spermatozoon joins an ovum to form a zygote. A zygote is a single cell, with a complete set of chromosomes , that normally develops into an embryo. Sperm cells contribute approximately half of the nuclear genetic information to the diploid offspring excluding, in most cases, mitochondrial DNA. In mammals, the sex of the offspring is determined by the sperm cell: a spermatozoon bearing a X chromosome will lead to a female XX offspring, while one bearing a Y chromosome will lead to a male XY offspring. Sperm cells were first observed in Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 's laboratory in
Sperm Cell: Definition & Function
The Anatomy and Function of Sperm - Viera Fertility Center
There are many different types of cells in animals. Each type is specialised to do a particular role. These ensure that the organism functions as a whole. Type of animal cell.
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Major advances in biomolecular techniques as well as in the sensitivity and accuracy of mass spectrometers are transforming the scientific landscape by fueling unprecedented advances in analytical biochemistry—the 'omics revolution, which refers to the study of genes genomics , transcripts transcriptomics , proteins proteomics and the various metabolites metabolomics. It is now possible to secure inventories of lipids, proteins, metabolites and RNA species in purified cell populations and to determine how these entities change in relation to cellular function. The humble spermatozoon is an ideal target for these new technologies because these cells can be obtained in large numbers, in an absolutely pure state and can be routinely and robustly induced to perform their major biological function—fertilization— in vitro. The spermatozoon is also an excellent target for proteomics because the functional transformation of these cells during their journey from the seminiferous tubules of the testes to the surface of the oocyte, takes place in the complete absence of contemporaneous gene transcription. Rather, functionality is conferred upon these cells by post-translational changes to their protein complement that, in turn, induce critical changes in sperm metabolism.